The social safety net is provided on both federal and regional levels. The regional authorities can establish benefits on the expense of their budgets.

The Ministry of Health and Social Development is the governmental body responsible for social protection. It co-ordinates and controls a number of institutions: the Federal Service for the Control over the Protection of the Consumer's Rights and Welfare, the Federal Service for the Control over Health Service and Social Development, the Federal Service for Labour and Employment, the Federal Agency for Health and Social Development.

The social security system is financed through the system of non-budget funds, the State Pension Fund, Social Insurance Fund and Compulsory Medical Insurance Fund. These funds are separate financial institutions, whose assets are in state ownership but do not constitute a part of the federal budget, regional or local budgets. The funds are financed by the obligatory contributions made by employers in the form of a unified social tax and by assignments from the federal budget. The funds are controlled and co-ordinated by the Ministry of Health and Social Development.